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Chicken's digestion and metabolism of protein and its influencing factors

2021-03-27

1. Digestion and metabolism of protein and amino acids

Poultry's digestion of crude protein is decomposed into amino acids under the action of proteolytic enzymes in the digestive tract, most of which are digested and absorbed in the small intestine. The metabolism of absorbed amino acids in the body is also divided into two biochemical processes, synthesis and decomposition, roughly using the absorbed amino acids to synthesize protein.

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After the amino group is separated from the non-nitrogen (carbon chain) part, the amino group is either re-synthesized amino acid, or forms uric acid and excreted with urine; the carbon chain can recombine the transferred hydrogen group to synthesize amino acid, and it can also enter the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. By the way, it may be oxidized to liberate heat energy, or it may be converted into glycogen or fat and stored in the body. Participate in the formation of nitrogen-containing compounds other than proteins.

Poultry has a very low ability to deposit protein as a storage material, and can only use the protein that constitutes its own unique. Therefore, when raising poultry, you should always supply protein, and maintain a proper protein level. If more, it will be wasted. At the same time, amino acids should be selectively used to synthesize body protein. Therefore, attention should be paid to the quality of protein supply, that is, the supply of essential amino acids should be considered. The amino acids from feed protein and the amino acids of body protein are often alternately replaced.

This process of continuous synthesis and decomposition of body protein is called dynamic balance; when the amount of synthesis and decomposition is balanced, it is called dynamic balance. The process of decomposition and synthesis of protoplast proteins in the body is still going on even when hungry, so the cell's own proteins are always in a dynamic balance of decomposition and synthesis; the conversion and decomposition of proteins in the body is also going on continuously.

Therefore, not only the growing period of poultry needs to supply a large amount of protein, but also the diet of adult poultry must maintain a certain level of protein.

2. Protein levels in the chicken poultry feed

The level of protein in the diet is the amount of protein in the diet. Too much or lack of it will cause harm. This article focuses on the utilization of protein. The amount of dietary protein cannot be too little or too much. Too low protein content in the diet will affect the digestibility of the diet, cause metabolic disorders, and seriously affect the productivity of livestock and poultry; too high a dietary protein content will not only increase the deposition of nitrogen in the body, but will decompose the excrement The increase in incomplete nitrogen content reduces the utilization rate of protein. Only by maintaining a reasonable protein level can protein utilization be improved.

3. The quality of protein in the chicken poultry diet

The quality of protein is determined by the number and types of amino acids that make up it. A protein with high complete price and good quality must meet the conditions that the essential amino acids (restrictive amino acids) are complete in variety and large in quantity. Such a protein can be called a complete value protein; on the contrary, the complete price is low and the quality is poor. , It is called incomplete value protein. If the quality of the protein in the diet is good, its utilization rate is high and the amount of protein fed can be saved. The nutritional value of protein can be evaluated according to the utilization rate of digestible protein in the body, that is, the biological value of protein, which is essentially the problem of the balanced utilization of amino acids, because the degree of digestible protein synthesis in the body is related to the degree of amino acid. Whether the ratio is balanced has a direct relationship.

The problem of the ratio of essential amino acids to non-essential amino acids is also related to improving the utilization of protein in the body. First, it is necessary to ensure that amino acids are mainly used for nitrogen metabolism; secondly, it is necessary to ensure sufficient non-essential amino acids to prevent the metabolic pathways of essential amino acids from being transferred to non-essential amino acids. In recent years, through the progress of the research on the nutritional value of amino acids, the amount of protein in the diet tends to decrease, but this has actually met the need for amino acids in the process of protein metabolism in poultry and improved the biological value of protein. Thus saving protein feed. In the feeding practice, the dietary feed should be diversified, so that there are more types of amino acids in the diet, which can have complementary effects, and then achieve the purpose of improving the biological value of protein.

4. The relationship between various nutrients in the poultry chicken diet

The various nutritional factors in the diet are all related to each other and restrict each other. In recent years, in the practice of poultry breeding, people have paid more and more attention to the problem of the ratio of energy to protein in the diet. After digestion and absorption of protein, under normal circumstances, 20% to 30% of the protein is decomposed in the body to release energy, of which the decomposed products are excreted in the urine, and the other 70% to 80% are used to synthesize body tissues. However, when the energy in Et food is insufficient, protein decomposition in the body is aggravated, which is mainly used to meet the energy demand of poultry and reduce the biological value of protein.

Therefore, sufficient energy should be supplied in the breeding practice to avoid the use of high-value protein as energy. In addition, when the dietary energy concentration increases and the feed intake decreases, the protein intake will decrease accordingly, which will cause the productivity of poultry to decrease. Conversely, when the dietary energy concentration decreases, the poultry will inevitably increase the feed intake in order to meet the energy needs. , If the percentage of protein in the diet remains the same, it will cause diet waste. Therefore, there should be a certain ratio between the energy and protein content in the diet. For example, the energy-to-protein ratio is an indicator of this relationship.

5. The influence of time factor on chicken protein nutrient

Only by providing various amino acids in adequate amounts and appropriate proportions in the feed supply can they synthesize the corresponding protein in the poultry body. If the body tissues cannot be reached at the same time due to different feeding times, the first-comer will be decomposed, and the latter will be useless. As a result, the matching and balance of amino acids will be abnormal, which will affect the utilization. Therefore, when formulating feed formulas for different chicken groups, it is necessary to meet the appropriate ratio of various amino acids and feed them at the appropriate time.

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