At present, the production of complete sets of equipment for laying hens has entered a golden period of rapid development. The upgrading of the laying hens industry will be completed by mechanized, automated, and intelligent equipment systems. The technical bottleneck in the application of complete sets of equipment is a major problem that plagues most large-scale laying hens.
The solution to these problems cannot be achieved overnight. It requires close cooperation between equipment manufacturers and breeding enterprises and exchanges with each other to make breeding equipment more suitable for modern poultry production.
1. Feeding equipment
In actual production, some enterprises and farmers have no basis to follow when choosing chain, driving, and auger feeding equipment. How should they choose? How does the automatic feeding system ensure uniform feeding? In the tower during the high temperature period in summer Will the stored feed deteriorate? Can the bulk feeder be equipped with metering equipment?
When selecting feeding equipment, it is necessary to comprehensively consider feeding uniformity, dust generation, failure rate and parts cost. For example, the chain feeding equipment feeds uniformly and produces less dust, but the failure rate and the cost of accessories are relatively high. These indicators must be weighed.
Some people think that: the driving type feeding equipment is economical, simple, and the feeding is uniform, which is suitable for China's national conditions; the chain type feeding equipment is suitable for broiler breeding, and the auger type feeding equipment has better control on feeding speed, chicken stress, and feed waste.
Some people think that the noise of the feeding equipment is relatively small, the feed is low during use, and there is little dust after the cover is added.
Someone pointed out: Experiments have confirmed that the use of auger feeding system can save 5-10 grams of feed per chicken, and the auger idling can also stimulate the flock to eat.
Someone pointed out that in addition to restricting feeding, it is better to use a chain feeding system for layer breeding, because the feeding amount is well controlled, and it is not limited by the length of the chicken house. It takes up a small space and has a larger aisle space.
In fact, some feeding systems are now equipped with automatic feeding devices, which can not only ensure uniform feeding, but also reduce the labor intensity of manual feeding, but the feeder will also cause blockage when encountering chicken feathers, which needs further improvement.
Someone pointed out: Now some bulk material trucks are equipped with automatic metering devices to ensure the accuracy of the ingredients. The storage time of feed in the feed tower should not be too long, and the feed will not deteriorate in a short period of time (2-3 days).
2. Drinking water equipment
What is the function of the drinking cup with the drinking nipple of the brooding chicken? What is the function of the middle sink in the laying hen house? The water supply system needs to be improved: large chicken houses cannot drink water at the same time, and the time difference is 1 hour or more. In addition, there are problems such as deformation of drinking water lines and lack of water line recoil devices.
Someone emphasized: The nipple drinker is equipped with a drinking cup to prevent chickens from wetting the feathers when drinking water. The drinking cup should be cleaned regularly to prevent the growth of bacteria. The sink in the middle of the chicken coop is mainly used for receiving water when changing the nipples, and it should be cleaned regularly to prevent dirt and dirt.
Someone pointed out that to solve the problem that chickens cannot drink water at the same time, the main pipe of the drinking water pipe can be thickened to increase the water pressure, or each layer can supply water separately. You can also turn off the light for a period of time and then turn on the light, so as to ensure that the chickens are at the same time. Drinking water.
In the opinion of some people, many chicken farms are accustomed to drinking water for drug delivery, but the powder will be blocked by the filter after being added, which will affect the drug delivery effect. The filter needs to be flushed regularly, and the water line should also be cleaned regularly, but strong acids and alkalis should not be used. The waterline is easily deformed when it is used for a long time or when the season changes, which is related to the quality of the waterline. In addition, it is necessary to ensure that the installation is in place.
3. Cage equipment
What are the advantages and disadvantages of stacked chicken cages? The depth (600mm, 620mm, 750mm), height (430mm, 450mm), single cage capacity (6, 8, 10) of the cage, and what is the appropriate cage spacing? How to solve the problem of chicken running out of the cage and fleeing the cage? What is the effect of using the cage to raise the breeder?
Someone pointed out that the layered cages of laying hens have the following advantages: saving land, reducing investment in civil construction, and raising a large amount per unit area; high degree of mechanization, reducing labor intensity, and reducing labor costs; the environment of the chicken house can be controlled artificially to reduce the impact of the external environment. The impact of chickens; chicken manure can be treated in time to reduce environmental pollution. There are also the following shortcomings: strong dependence on energy; relatively high energy consumption; single building density is large, which increases biological safety risks.
Someone pointed out: The cage layer spacing should be moderate, otherwise it will affect the growth of the chickens. Chicken running and fleeing can be achieved by adjusting the height of the baffle. What size chicken cage is suitable? In addition to considering the investment cost, the convenience of using the equipment must also be considered.
If the depth of the cage is too large, it will be inconvenient to catch chickens and repair the waterline. Regarding this cage, Judging from the practice of on company's breeding of parent-generation breeders, the house hens can lay 220 breeding eggs and 40 commercial eggs, and the average fertilization rate of breeding eggs can reach over 94%. The rate is also good, an average of 2.42 eggs can hatch a healthy female chick, but there are also some disadvantages in using this cage, such as the high rate of death of breeders and a large number of roosters.
4. Lighting equipment
Which type of lighting is suitable for chicken coops? How to arrange more reasonable?
Someone pointed out that most chicken farms now use energy-saving lamps. One problem is that the service life of energy-saving lamps is not long. Adding a ball cover to the lamp can play a role in waterproof and dustproof and extend the service life. For multi-layer caged layer houses, the lighting should be arranged staggered and not on the same horizontal line.
Someone pointed out: At present, farming companies do not dimming energy-saving lamps much, and not dimming will shorten their service life. The use of LED lights is easy to adjust the light intensity, and there are two methods of DC dimming and AC dimming, which are easy to operate.
5. Environmental control equipment
Environmental control equipment includes fans, louvers, water curtains and controllers. Many problems will also be encountered in production, such as the heating problem of the chicken house in winter, the chicken house is dry and dusty, how to control respiratory diseases and dust problems, in large chicken houses The environment is unbalanced, and there are dead corners of ventilation at the front of the chicken house.
Some people think that: for the dryness and heating of the chicken house in winter, the air can be heated and humidified at the air inlet of the chicken house to prevent the air from drying out. It is more economical to use coal-fired boilers for heating in brooding houses, but it does not meet environmental protection requirements, the price of gas is high, and the air quality in the house is poor, so you can consider using electric heating.
Someone pointed out that the unbalanced environment in the chicken house and the existence of dead corners of ventilation are related to the effective ventilation volume and the minimum ventilation volume. In order to effectively control the ventilation volume, some companies use frequency conversion fans. The air volume control in actual application is not accurate. Mainly on switch control.
6. Egg white manure collection equipment
The egg conveyor belt is often dusty, which will stain the surface of the egg; the egg claw is easy to break and it is inconvenient to replace; how to avoid egg collision and reduce damage when picking up the egg; the manure removal belt has the phenomenon of deviation and leakage.
Someone pointed out that the egg conveyor belt should be cleaned regularly. Some farms have automatic cleaning devices on the equipment-brushes. If they do not have brushes, they must be cleaned manually, but automatic cleaning can greatly reduce the labor of the breeder. strength. In addition to the convenience of replacement, high-quality materials should be used as much as possible during the installation and design of the egg claw; in order to avoid the collision of eggs, the conveying speed of the conveyor belt should be set reasonably, and you can also consider adding a buffer device.
Someone pointed out: In addition to the installation problem, the deviation of the manure removal belt may also be uneven force during use, which needs to be solved by the manufacturer in technical services.
7. Poultry manure and dead chicken processing facilities
Many chicken farms use manure scrapers to remove manure, which not only takes a long time (about 45 minutes each time), but also twists the manure scraper back and forth, and the chicken manure becomes very thin and difficult to handle; there is no uniform standard for the handling of dead chickens and lack of phases. Supporting processing facilities.
At present, some chicken farms make full use of the heat energy of the chicken coop to dry the chicken manure to a certain extent before cleaning it, so that it will not cause environmental problems. Some companies are considering investing in biogas power generation equipment.
Someone pointed out that biogas power generation is not suitable for all enterprises. Everyone should do what they can. If there is no project funding support, don't invest lightly, because the cost of integrating biogas power generation into the national power grid is very high and the electricity price is controlled by the state. Not cost-effective. In some countries such as Japan, chicken manure is generally processed by natural composting and fermentation. This method is simple and feasible.
Someone pointed out that most chicken farms currently dispose of dead chickens are burned or buried deeply. If the measures are not in place, it will cause environmental pollution. In some parts of China, we are currently trying to make dead chickens into meat pellets for fish feed, pig feed, etc. , These are all directions worth exploring.
8. Find the right point of equipment production and use
(1) Equipment manufacturers must face the problem directly
Some people believe that: an embarrassing phenomenon is that chicken farmers do not understand equipment manufacturing, and those who understand equipment manufacturing cannot raise chickens. At present, domestic equipment companies mainly imitate, and the phenomenon is serious behind closed doors; there is a lack of horizontal cooperation and cooperation between companies.
Vertical communication, this should be learned from young chicken enterprises; the phenomenon of enterprises focusing on sales, research and development, and service is common; most of the products are "three nos" (no label, no manual, no product certification) products; product use and maintenance manuals are not complete, most companies do not; equipment parts standardization is low, technical parameters are not perfect; there is no unified version of the purchase and sales contract, and some are overlord clauses; the 8-hour work system of some manufacturers' installers is unreasonable and the installers' The sense of responsibility is not strong.
(2) The planning and design of chicken coops should be scientific and reasonable
Someone pointed out: In actual operation, the construction drawings of the chicken house should be provided by the equipment factory to ensure that the equipment is matched; the water, electricity, and monitoring lines of the chicken house should be well designed and buried in the ground and walls, and cannot be exposed in the chicken house.
Water outlets should be left at the front and back and at both ends of the chicken house, and no water ditch should be left on both sides and in the middle; the equipment investment should be done in one step, not seeking refinement or large, planning and designing well, step by step; equipment selection should consider the actual situation For production needs, the height of the chicken cage should meet the needs of 120-day-old chickens; the equipment can be automated to a certain degree, because the labor cost will be higher and higher in the future; the vulnerable parts such as water, electricity, and heating must be backed up, and if they are insufficient, they must be supplemented in time , Otherwise it will cause a lot of losses; the recruitment and training of employees must be carried out simultaneously with the construction of the site.
(3) Equipment production and use need to be connected
In fact, in the process of raising young chickens, the kettle, feeder tray, and bottom net can be eliminated. This can greatly save labor intensity and make laying hens easier to raise. It can also achieve 36 hours after feeding in the trough. Adding materials, and the feed will not be mildewed. The methods that these breeding companies have explored in the application process are beyond the imagination of equipment companies.
Therefore, the designer of the equipment company needs to go deep into the chicken farm, listen more to the suggestions of the users, and consider the problem from the perspective of the breeder. The design and use of the equipment should also take advantage of the nature of the chicken. In addition, many chicken farms have equipment from different manufacturers. How to ensure that these equipment are installed, seamlessly connected, and functioning normally are also practical problems that need to be resolved.
【More info about chicken feed making】
Maintenance for several important equipments in 1-20tph chicken feed pellet production line
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