Mushroom chaff is the leftover culture and bacterial remnants after mushroom picking, mainly wood chips, rice stalks, corn stalks, corn cobs, cotton seed husks and other high-fiber agricultural by-products, as well as vinegar lees, distiller's grains, papermaking Industrial wastes such as factory waste liquid have a large output. Fermented feeds made by fermentation technology can be used in poultry farming or ruminant cattle farming. So what is the effect of this fermented feed?
The raw materials of fungus chaff are mostly by-products of high-fiber crops such as straw, wood chips, and bran. Because of its low nutritional value, poor palatability, low digestibility and absorption rate, the feed value is not high. However, edible fungi can biodegrade the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in the raw materials into nutrients such as fungus polysaccharides, organic acids, and fungal protein. In addition, the raw material of mushroom bran itself is rich in calcium, phosphorus, ash and some trace elements. Therefore, based on the original substance, the raw material of mushroom bran can improve its nutritional value through microbial fermentation, and its palatability and feeding performance can also be improved.
Mushroom chaff is mainly composed of high lignocellulose raw materials such as corn cob, bran and wood chips. It has the characteristics of rich dietary fiber and non-starch polysaccharides and low price. However, broilers do not have enough endogenous lignocellulose degrading enzymes, so The use of feed fermentation technology to degrade and destroy the lignocellulose in the fungus chaff can improve the utilization rate of fiber polysaccharide raw materials in the intestine of broilers. Adding 20% Pleurotus ostreatus in the feed for meat ducks in the early stage of feeding can significantly reduce the growth performance and daily feed intake of ducklings; in the late growth period of meat ducks, adding 20% of fermenting bacteria residues and mixing with 2% plants Essential oils can significantly increase the daily weight gain and feed conversion rate of meat ducks. This may be because meat ducks have different crude fiber digestibility in different growth periods and the synergistic improvement of plant essential oils, resulting in growth performance and daily feed intake in the early stage. , Differences appear in the later stage.
At present, the price of feed remains high, and it can make full use of some leftovers to ferment to make feed, which can effectively reduce the cost of feeding.
1. Feed preparation method of fermented pomace for raising goose
(1) Feed formula for 1-21-day-old goslings:
51% corn meal, 8% fish meal, 10% soybean cake, 15% wheat bran, 15% grass meal, 0.7% bone meal, 0.3% salt, and 1 kg of edible fungus liquid per 500 kg of total diet, the amount of the previous formula It accounts for 70% and is fed with 30% fermented fungus chaff or pomace.
(2) 22～70-day-old feed formula for goose:
Corn meal 36%, wheat bran 15%, grass meal 18%, silkworm pupae 15%, rapeseed cake 15%, bone meal 0.7%, salt 0.3%, 1 kg of edible fungus liquid per 500 kg of total diet feed, The dosage of the previous formula is 60%, mixed with 40% fermented fungus chaff or pomace.
(3) Meat goose stage
Add 1.5 kilograms of edible fungus liquid per 500 kilograms of total diet feed, because the fermented fungus chaff or pomace is wet, so the proportional weight should be multiplied by 2 times.
Problems that should be paid attention to in the use of fermented fungus chaff or pomace in raising geese: ①Adopt the principle of small amount first and increase slowly, starting from 10% and increasing slowly; ②After feeding, the geese should supplement certain amount green feed.
2. Feed ratio of fermented fungus chaff or pomace fed to fattening beef cattle
In combination with local resources, use wheat bran, rice bran, cereal flour, wheat flour, secondary flour, sorghum flour, hay flour, green fodder, peanut bran, rapeseed meal, sunflower cake, etc. to replace or partially replace the following table As raw materials, you can also use other degraded straws such as: degraded wheat straw, degraded sugar beet residue, degraded bagasse, degraded peanut stalk, degraded rape straw, etc. to replace the corn straw degradable material in the table below. The principle is to use as diverse raw materials as possible Chemical, that is, use several straw materials in a formula, and the same is true for concentrated feed.
(1) Recipe for beef cattle under 300 kg
20% fermented fungus chaff or pomace, 22% corn stover (degradation), 18% corn, 6% barley flour, 12% sorghum flour, 4% secondary flour, 12.4% hay flour, 5% soybean cake, cottonseed cake 21%, 0.4% salt, 1.2% calcium hydrogen phosphate or stone powder, additives (addition of every 400 kg of total diet feed: 2 kg of animal edible fungus liquid), appropriate amount of urea, appropriate amount of baking soda. The daily feeding amount is 8 kg, and the daily weight gain is expected to be 900 g.
(2) 300～400kg beef cattle feed formula
30% fermented fungus chaff or pomace, 27% corn stover (degradation), 10% corn, 6% barley flour, 12% sorghum flour, 4% secondary flour, 10% hay flour, 15.4% cotton seed cake, salt 0.4%, calcium hydrogen phosphate or 1.2% of stone powder, additives (addition of every 400 kg of total diet: 2 kg of animal edible fungus), appropriate amount of urea, and baking soda plus 1%. The daily feeding amount is 10 kg, and the daily weight gain is expected to be 1100g.
(3) Recipe for 400～500kg beef cattle
40% of fermented fungus chaff or pomace, corn stover (degradation) 30%, corn 4%, barley flour 6%, sorghum flour 12%, secondary flour 4%, hay flour 8.5%, salt 0.4%, hydrogen phosphate Calcium or stone powder 1.1%, additives (addition per 400 kg of total diet feed: 2 kg of edible fungus liquid for animals), appropriate amount of urea, and baking soda plus 1%. The daily feeding amount is 13 kg, and the daily weight gain is expected to be 1200g.
(4) Formula for beef cattle over 500 kg
40% of fermented fungus chaff or pomace, 35% of corn stover (degradation), 13.4% of corn, 6% of barley flour, 12% of sorghum flour, 4% of secondary flour, 8.5% of hay flour, 10% of cottonseed cake, salt 0.5%, calcium hydrogen phosphate or 1.1% stone powder, additives (addition of 400 kg of total diet feed: 2 kg of animal edible fungus), appropriate amount of urea, and baking soda plus 1%. The daily feeding amount is 16 kg, and the daily weight gain is expected to be 1500g.
Note: When feeding urea, try feeding a small amount first, and then increase the dosage. At the same time, urea cannot be eaten on an empty stomach. It must be fed with other concentrated feeds, especially energy feeds, and dissolved in water.
3. The ingredient use of fermented edible fungus chaff or pomace in the lactation period of adult dairy cows
In the dairy farm, some corn stalks and wheat stalks treated with degradants can be prepared as coarse feed along with corn silage stalks and hay; in addition, soybean meal, corn meal, wheat bran, and treatment with degrading agents can be prepared. Green-green feed such as dregs, carrots, potato seedlings, etc.; as well as premixes such as multi-dimensional and minerals, calcium hydrogen phosphate, bone meal, etc.
Concentrated feed formula: 30% fermented fungus chaff or pomace, 15.7% corn meal, 8% soybean meal, 14% cotton meal, 15% corn silage straw, 13% hay, 1% premix, 0.3% salt , Baking soda 1%, calcium hydrogen phosphate or bone meal 2%.
Additionally per 400 kg of total diet feed: 2 kg of animal edible fungus liquid, 1 kg of microbial growth promoting liquid
In the peak period of lactation, in addition to ensuring the provision of degraded high-quality straw feed, hay, silage corn, etc., allowing them to eat freely, it is also necessary to appropriately increase the proportion of concentrated feed.
During lactation, you can feed 300-500 grams of microbial growth promoting liquid per head per day. 100 grams of baking soda (if baking soda is added to the concentrate, no additional addition is necessary), 50 to 80 grams of urea.
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