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①Select and determine the breeding standards. Based on the special standards of broiler chickens in the Chinese chicken breeding standards, refer to NRC (National Research Council) and other standards, and make appropriate adjustments according to chicken breeds, feed resources, breeding and management conditions, local conditions and processing methods of batch materials.
②Adopt stage feeding management technology. The breeding standards of broiler chickens in various countries in the world list their different nutritional levels by stage (week age) to ensure that the nutritional level provided is closer to the actual needs of broilers, and to promote the growth of broilers more effectively and economically by using protein feed.
③ Use an appropriate amount of dietary energy concentration. Broilers have a certain ability to regulate the feed intake of diets with different energy concentrations, with low intake of high-energy concentration diets and high intake of low-energy concentration diets. It is ideal that the metabolic energy concentration of broiler diet is above 12.86MJ/kg. Limited to conditions, it can be reduced to the specified value of Chinese breeding standards. During stage feeding, the energy concentration of each stage can be equal or gradually increased, but the decreasing trend should be avoided as much as possible. Adding oil can effectively increase the energy concentration. The addition level is: 1% for broiler chicken, 1.5% for broiler chicken, and 2% for broiler chicken. Generally, laying hens need to be supplemented with 100-120g daily diet; for broilers, 130-150g.
④Preparation with high protein level is used. Under the premise of dietary amino acid balance, it is more appropriate for the crude protein of the diet to increase to 22% in the early stage and drop to 18% in the later stage.
⑤ Pay attention to the balance between various amino acids in the diet. When the energy concentration of the formula is higher or lower than the standard, the dietary amino acid level should be increased or decreased according to the ratio of amino acid to energy. For insufficient amounts of amino acids, the nutritional value can be improved through the complementary effects of multiple protein feeds, or they can be supplemented directly by synthetic amino acids.
⑥Sufficient mineral elements and excessive vitamins. Calcium and phosphorus must be adequately supplied in the form of compounds that facilitate absorption (such as monocalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, etc.). Vitamins and trace elements are regulatory substances. The figures listed by China and NRC are the minimum requirements. The content in the feed can be used as a safe dosage, and the regulations in the standard can be used as the added amount. However, due to the unstable activity of vitamins, it can be 50-100% or higher than the standard in practical application, especially vitamin A. At present, the use of post-spray technology can maintain vitamin activity and reduce the vitamin additive dosage.
⑦ Reasonable use of pharmaceutical additives and enzyme preparations. One to two weeks before the sale, the addition of antibiotics should be strictly controlled to avoid residues. The introduction of exogenous enzyme preparations and probiotics will help digestion and absorption.
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