The production personnel of poultry chicken feed processing plants should undergo pre-job training. Only after formal pre-job training (including procedures, safety, quality influencing factors, cost influencing factors, etc.), and passing the assessment can they be employed. This is because of quality It is produced by every quality-conscious worker on the poultry chicken feed mill factory production line. Once out of the assembly line, product defects are found in "quality control" afterwards, and rework is time-consuming and laborious, and if it leaves the chicken feed mill factory, it will be even more troublesome. Therefore, quality control must run through the entire manufacturing process of poultry chicken feed making plant.
1. The poultry chicken processing technology meets hygienic requirements to prevent cross-contamination
The main measures taken are:
②The general poultry chicken feed making raw material warehouse should be fixed as far as possible. If there is any change, the poultry feed raw material warehouse should be thoroughly cleaned to avoid pollution caused by the mixing of the two raw materials for chicken.
③Clean up the remaining materials in the batching warehouse, mixer, finished product warehouse, and bucket elevator frame, generally once every 3 days from June to September, and once every 7 days in other months.
④When producing poultry chicken pellet feed, the pre-pelletizing bin,poultry chicken feed pellet making machine, and chicken pellet cooler must be thoroughly cleaned for different varieties before granulating, so as to prevent the previous batch of products from polluting the products to be produced.
⑤When producing drug-added feed, the remaining materials in the batching bin, mixer for mixing chicken feed, finished product bin, and conveyor should be cleaned up. When cleaning, 100kg of cleaning material (usually neutral raw materials such as jade powder) can be used to clean the bin for cleaning up drug residues. Especially for the production of chicken poultry feeds, concentrated chicken feeds and chicken premixes with high drug content, each batch should be cleaned to prevent cross-contamination.
2. Quality control before poultry chicken feed production
(1) Quality control of raw materials for poultry feed
The quality and stability of poultry feed raw materials are directly related to the quality of feed products. Therefore, the quality control of raw materials is strengthened to prevent unqualified raw materials, mildew, and pollution. It is a prerequisite to ensure high-quality feed products. Specific quality control measures include: Reliable purchase channels, which are more important than specific inspections. In particular, many raw materials cannot be fully inspected or are difficult to inspect. Such as: trace element content in zeolite powder, ammonia absorption value, whether calcium hydrogen phosphate is doped with tricalcium phosphate, etc.
(2) Selection and delivery of chicken feed raw material varieties
①Poultry chicken feed raw material selection
Appropriate animal feed raw materials should be selected according to the actual situation. In addition to considering the shelf life of the raw materials, the production time and the compatibility of various chicken feed raw materials (for example, basic copper chloride is more beneficial to vitamins than copper sulfate pentahydrate). Stability and preservation), but also consider the characteristics of some raw materials and other factors. For example, peanut meal is prone to breed Aspergillus flavus in summer, alcohol grains are often not fresh, and corn gluten meal and fish meal are often adulterated.
②Raw materials out of storage
How is the quality of the poultry chicken feed raw materials changed after a period of storage? Do you need to take measures? Therefore, all raw materials should be strictly sampled and checked before use. If they are found to have high moisture, moldy, odor, insects, and blending (such as feather meal with fish meal, fermented soybean meal with other non-soybean meal protein raw materials, common Plant-derived proteins such as corn gluten, rice protein, cotton meal, rapeseed meal and peanut meal, or meat and bone meal, amino acid bacterial protein, hydrolyzed feather meal, hydrolyzed leather meal, and poor-quality peptone to increase the protein content) shall not be used . A dedicated person should be responsible for the raw materials from the warehouse to the unloading point to ensure that the issued materials are consistent with the formula. At the same time, they should comply with the order of use of the raw materials (including additives or premixes) to ensure the best use effect and the shortest storage period of each poultry chicken feed making raw material.
①Inspect and clean the chicken poultry feed processing equipment
Every day after the feed equipment starts to run for 10-15 minutes, the processing equipment must be repeatedly checked and cleaned, including magnetic separation devices, feeders, pulverizers, batching scales, oil injection devices, mixers, granulators and balers ( Scale) and so on. Especially for the batching scale, which is the core of the batching process, the accuracy of the electronic scale needs to be checked regularly, but because of its cumbersome calibration and a microcomputer to display its working process, it is easy to be ignored in chicken feed production.
②Inspection of chicken poultry feed grinding machine
Before processing, check the screen for leaks, leaks, misalignment, etc., and check whether the metal impurities on the magnetic plate above the feeder are cleaned to prevent it from falling into the corn grinder crusher for chicken feed.
③Inspection of the poultry feed mixing equipment
When the poultry chicken feed is mixed, whether the mixer has leakage when the discharge gate of the mixer is closed and whether the material can be completely discharged from the mixer after it is opened.
④The harm of equipment failure
Equipment failure will bring losses to production. For example, if the magnetic separation device fails, the iron nails in the raw materials will not be removed, and the machine will be damaged, and it will be brought into the feed and endanger the animals. A problem with the accuracy of the batching scale will cause the formula to be distorted, and the packaging machine (scale) will cause the product to exceed the label weight, causing economic loss to the company, or less than the label weight, which will cause the company’s reputation loss. It also harms the interests of customers.
3. Quality control during chicken poultry feed making line production
The process control of compound chicken poultry feed processing includes both real-time tracking of the raw material status and control of the precision of raw material ingredients. Many of these factors are variable and difficult to control and cannot be ignored. Therefore, every post and chicken feed production process must be reviewed and supervised to form a supervisory responsibility system.
(1) Raw material inspection during chicken feed processing
The inspection of chicken feed making raw materials in processing refers to when a variety or batch is produced, and the remaining part of the raw materials in the production equipment process is not used up, and it is re-used after a period of inactivity due to a change to other varieties, etc. , They must be inspected again (sensory inspection is sufficient), which is more important in summer, especially for crushed corn, corn distillers grain protein feed (DDGS) and other perishable raw materials.
Pre-feeding inspections are almost all partial inspections. Feeding, as the only comprehensive (sensory) inspection link and final (sensory) inspection of raw materials, must be highly valued. In addition, when changing the feeding variety, you must wait until the previous variety is completely empty before putting into the next variety to avoid cross-contamination.
(3) Raw material crushing
①Appropriate crushing particle size
The optimum crushing particle size of chicken poultry feed refers to the geometric average particle size that is economically cost-effective and does not affect the animal's health and does not affect the animal's health. It is different due to different animal species, different feeding stages, different composition of raw materials, different tempering and curing methods and forming methods.
②Quality control of raw material crushing
a. The animal poultry feed crushing process mainly controls the crushing particle size and its uniformity. In production, the crusher should only be started with no load to avoid excessive starting current and burning of the motor.
b. The material to be fed into the poultry feed hammer mill crusher is required to be uniform to prevent material rushing.
c. Regularly check whether the hammer is worn or not; always pay attention to the crushing capacity of the corn maize hammer mill crusher for chicken fed and the fineness of the material discharged from the animal chicken feed crushing machine.
(4) Ingredients and mixing
In order to reduce the influence of "air volume" on the accuracy of batching during batching, small diameter (or low speed) batching augers should be used for batching with larger bulk density. In the order of ingredients, large ingredients should be prepared first, followed by small ingredients. When batching, try to consider the symmetrical feeding of the scale hopper, so as not to affect the accuracy of the electronic scale due to excessive unbalanced load. When weighing ingredients manually, especially the ingredients of premix, there must be a correct weighing sequence, and necessary recheck weighing before feeding. In terms of process design and equipment selection, the material entering the batching bin is best conveyed by a rotary distributor, because there will be residues in the auger, and even silo fleeing will occur, which will affect the actual volume of the feed and increase the batching error.
a. Mixing time
The mixing time should not be too short, but not too long. If the time is too short, the materials are not fully mixed in the mixer, which will affect the quality of the mixing. If the time is too long, the materials will be over-mixed and cause separation, which also affects the quality.
b. Feeding order
The feeding sequence is usually that the large amount of components are added first or most of them are added to the machine, and then a small amount or a small amount of components are placed on the material. The material with large particle size is added first, and the material with small particle size is added later. Materials with low specific gravity are added first, and materials with high specific gravity are added later.
c. Mixing uniformity
The mixing uniformity of the animal feed mixer for poultry feed should be tested regularly. The coefficient of variation of compound feed and concentrated feed is ≤10%, and the coefficient of variation of premixed material is ≤5% to ensure the mixing quality.
d. Avoid separation
Using added grease, keep the particle size as consistent as possible, and minimize the loading and unloading of the finished feed after mixing and shorten the transportation distance.
①Regulating and conditioning
The first is quenching and tempering steam. Dry saturated steam is required. The steam pressure of the boiler should reach 0.8MPa. Before delivery to the conditioner, the steam pressure should be adjusted to 0.21～0.4MPa. After conditioning, the moisture content of the chicken feed is 15.5%-17%, and the temperature is 80-85℃. The second is the conditioning time. The conditioning time directly affects the conditioning effect of the material. Generally, it should not be less than 20s. Properly extending the time can improve the conditioning effect.
According to the different chicken feed making formula raw materials, different thickness dies should be selected. Materials with high heat sensitivity (such as whey powder), fibrous substances and feeds with high inorganic salt content should be selected as thinner dies. For feeds with high starch content, thicker molds should be used. The gap between the pressure die and the pressure roller is between 0.2mm and 0.5mm, and pay attention to adjust at any time, different products need different gaps.
Pay attention to adjusting the air volume and cooling time of the cooling system to ensure that the moisture content of the particles is controlled within the safe moisture range, and the material temperature is not higher than the room temperature 5°C.
a. The ring die poultry chicken feed pelleting machine should pay attention to factors such as steam pressure and granulation temperature at any time to ensure the granulation effect.
b. The black strips remaining in the die when starting up must not be mixed into the cooler.
c. When replacing a new ring die, the inner hole must be ground before it can be used.
d. In winter, especially in the north, the weather is cold. The upper part of the chicken pellet feed cooler's suction pipe and the iron wall of the cyclone dust collector connected to it have very low temperature, while the temperature of the dust material and a large amount of water vapor from the pellet cooler Relatively high, when they encounter a low-temperature iron wall (plus the water vapor temperature is getting lower and close to saturation), they will form water droplets on the inner side of the iron wall, and at the same time adhere to materials and dust, and accumulate more and more, and even block in severe cases. The air shutter at the bottom of the cyclone dust collector (sometimes the amount of adhesion is larger). This seriously affects the cooling and dust removal effect. On the other hand, a large amount of wet material with excessive water content is formed. If it is not cleaned in time, it will become moldy. If it is directly returned to the pelletizer or mixer, the feed quality will be affected. Solution: One is to coat the upper part of the induced draft pipe and the cyclone with thermal insulation materials to reduce the temperature difference between the iron wall and the water vapor, and the other is to clean up frequently, and the cleaned materials must not be used for batching or granulation.
The key points of quality control at the finished product discharge and packaging:
①Real-time monitoring of the quality of the finished product, such as the color, smell, and particle size of the finished product. For the same formula, different colors reflect different tempering and Granulation effect. If there is any abnormality, find out the cause immediately.
②The packing scale must be calibrated every day. When the packing machine is working continuously, the weight of the first 10 bags of feed must be checked.
③When a feed is produced, carefully calculate whether its output meets the allowable error. If the difference is too large (the difference is generally ±5‰), the reason must be found out.
④Sampling and testing the finished products from time to time to determine the component content and mixing uniformity.
⑤Check whether the packaged feed, packaging bag and label are correct, and ensure the quality of the seam bag, and no seam or thread drop.
4. Finished product storage
The key points of quality control for finished product storage:
(1) Do a good job in the sanitation of the finished product warehouse. The bottom of the finished product warehouse is easy to contain dirt and insects, so it needs to be cleaned in time and sprayed for disinfection if necessary.
(2) The storage period of the product should be given to the user as soon as possible within its shelf life. If the finished product inventory time is too long, it may exceed the shelf life (usually 3 months) from the feed factory to the breeder, so the feed inventory time No more than 30d at the latest.
(3) Keepers should master the basic knowledge and characteristics of various feed storage. For example, feed with molasses will become dull in color and lose the smell of molasses within 2 to 4 weeks. Feed with high fat content is better than normal feed. The storage period is shorter.
5. Sampling of finished products
The sampling of finished products should adhere to the principle of combining "points" (that is, particularity) and "surfaces" (that is, representativeness). The so-called "point" sampling, as a kind of sampling for discovering problems, is "concentrated one' point" sampling. "In order to find potential problems. For example, when changing the feed variety, collect samples from the first ton or the first few bags of the second variety to check whether the clearance work is serious and thorough, and whether there is cross-contamination. The so-called "face" Sampling, as a prerequisite for comprehensive monitoring of feed quality, emphasizes that sampling should be representative, that is, take at least one spoon per ton of feed, and each bag of samples should not be less than 400-500g.
6. Improve quality record files
Quality records should include equipment inspection and testing conditions, feeding and ingredient conditions, etc., one can make the product quality traceable, and the other can accumulate first-hand information for future work improvement.
To sum up, feed processing seems to be done by pulverizing and mixing the raw materials, but the actual processing quality control is a rather cumbersome systematic project. Only when the process flow and animal feed equipment of the chicken poultry feed production factory are selected reasonably, the management is strictly required, and the operation is in compliance with the regulations, the quality of chicken poultry feed processing be guaranteed.
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