DDGS feed is the trade name of protein feed in distiller's grains, that is, dried distiller's grains containing soluble solids. In the process of using corn as raw material to ferment to produce ethanol, the starch in it is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide, and other nutrients such as protein, fat, and fiber remain in the distiller's grains. At the same time, due to the action of microorganisms, the content of protein, B vitamins and amino acids in distiller's grains are increased compared with corn, and contains unknown growth-promoting factors produced during fermentation.
1. Nutritional value and feeding amount of corn DDGS feed to different animals
When using DDGS, you must grasp the exact nutritional composition, advantages and disadvantages. In addition, attention should be paid to animal health:
★Mycotoxin problem: DDGS has high moisture content, grains are damaged, and mold is easy to grow. Therefore, the mycotoxin content is high. There may be a variety of mycotoxins, which can cause mycotoxin poisoning in livestock. It leads to low immunity and easy disease, and production performance decreases. Therefore, anti-mold agents and broad-spectrum mycotoxin adsorbents must be used.
★Because the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in DDGS is high, they are prone to oxidation, which is unfavorable to animal health, reduces energy value, and affects production performance and product quality such as carcass quality and milk quality, so antioxidants should be used.
★Anti-nutritional factors: The fiber content in DDGS rice bran is high, and monogastric animals cannot use it, so enzyme preparations are used to improve the utilization of fiber by animals. In addition, some products may contain plant lectins, gossypol, etc. The activity should be greatly reduced after processing.
DDGS is an excellent source of essential fatty acids and linoleic acid. When combined with other feeds, it becomes the feed for breeders and laying hens. DDGS lacks lysine, but the first limiting amino acid for poultry is methionine, which is used to grow feathers. All DDGS products are excellent sources of methionine. The maximum amount of DDGS in different poultry diets is 2.5% for broilers, 5% for fattening broilers, 15% for laying hens, 20% for breeders, 5% for young hens, 5% for ducks, and 5% for fighting cock.
DDGS feed can prevent pig intestinal digestive diseases and inhibit the pathogenic bacteria in the feed itself. DDGS has high effective phosphorus content and low calcium content, which requires other mineral raw materials to supplement; rich in B vitamins and vitamin E, but lysine The acid and tryptophan content is very low, lysine and tryptophan must be added. Corn DDGS is an excellent source of energy, protein and other major nutrients required by pigs at different growth stages. The maximum amount of DDGS in different pig diets are: 20% for young pigs (7 kg ~ 12 kg) and growing pigs (12 kg ~ 50 kg), 20% for fattening pigs (50 kg ~ 100 kg), and 50 for pregnant sows. %, 20% of lactating sows, 50% of breeding boars, and 20% of gilts. Improper use of DDGS will affect the palatability of the feed. The wine tastes very strong when it leaves the factory. It is used to produce pig feed. Adding 5%-6% will cause the palatability of the feed to decrease, but after a period of storage, the pungent smell will be obvious Weakened and improved palatability.
(3) Beef cattle
DDGS is used in beef cattle feed, and its advantages are: improve rumen fermentation function, provide rumen protein, transform fiber into energy, have strong palatability and food safety, and are an excellent source of minerals such as phosphorus and potassium. The beef cattle production test showed that the net weight gain of fresh DG, fresh DGS and DDGS were 96%, 102% and 80% of that of compressed corn, respectively. Since fat and effective fiber in fresh or dried DGS replace soluble carbohydrates and starch, it helps to maintain the balance of rumen microecology and stabilize rumen pH. Therefore, fresh or dried DGS can reduce rumen acidosis. DDGS is unique in terms of rumen bypass protein, excellent palatability and effective fiber safety. The amount used in milk replacer is up to 20%; the amount used in milk supplement is up to 20%; the amount used in fattening beef cattle is the total intake 40% of dry matter; reserve cows use 25% of total feed intake.
The optimum addition of DDGS in fish feed processing plant is 10%~20%. The highest DDGS dosage was 30% in catfish, 15% in rainbow trout, 35% in tilapia and 20% in crucian carp.
DDGS can be used up to 40% in freshwater shrimp food processing and can partially or completely replace fish meal in feed manufacturing. In prawns feed production, the highest dosage can be 10%.
(6)Other kinds of Animal
The recommended Dosage of DDGS in other kinds of Animal Feed Production is shown as the table below:
|Recommended Dosage of DDGS (%)|
|Calf and Lamb: 0||Porkling: 0~2.5%||Chick: 0|
|Cows, Beef cattle: 0~25%||Pig: 0~15%||Broiler Chicken: 0~7.5%|
|Aquatic animals (omnivorous): 0~20%||Sow: 0~20%||Egg Chicken: 0~7.5%|
2. Comparison of American DDGS and China DDGS
The typical nutritional value of American DDGS is: more than 26% crude protein, more than 10% crude fat, 0.85% lysine and 0.75% phosphorus. Due to the difference in alcohol production process and drying process, the nutrient content and utilization rate of DDGS produced in the United States and DDGS produced in China are different. The nutrient variation of domestic DDGS is relatively large, and because the germ of corn is removed before fermentation, the fat content of the product is low, so the energy content is also relatively low. The low utilization rate of China DDGS protein may be mainly caused by excessive heating during the drying process.
The appearance of DDGS:
Appearance: yellow-brown-dark brown, high soluble content and darker color at high drying temperature.
Taste: It has a fermented smell, contains organic acid, and has a slightly sour taste.
3.What should be pay Attention to When Use DDGS in Aquatic Fish Shrimp Feed Production?
Corn DDGS feed has the advantages of low starch, high protein, high digestible fiber and high available phosphorus, which has been widely used in livestock and aquaculture feed production. The following attentions should be paid to the use of DDGS in fish feed processing.
（1）The nutrition content of DDGS produced by different fermentation materials is quite different, and the different production process adopted by different distillers will also result in a great difference.
（2）When compared with the raw corn materials, the content of other nutrients, such as protein, fat and vitamins is significantly increased due to the removal of starch and sugar. However, the content of mycotoxin is also usually three times that of corn.
（3）Although DDGS is high in protein, methionine and cystine, but lysine is obviously insufficient.
（4）Due to the influence of amino acid balance and crude fiber, DDGS can only partially replace soybean meal in animal feed production plant, but not completely. In the process of use, it is necessary to supplement lysine and other restricted amino acids.
（5）The content of available phosphorus in DDGS is relatively high, which should be fully utilized. After fermentation, phytic acid will hydrolyze and release phytic acid phosphorus, the phosphorus utilization rate up to 80%.
（6）The Lutein content is 3 times of corn, with good coloring effect.
Besides, DDGS is also widely used in animal poultry and livestock feed production. It is an excellent source of protein and energy for livestock animals, with good palatability.
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