Coarse feed refers to feed with a natural moisture content of less than 60% and a crude fiber content of 18% or more in dry matter, and is fed in the form of air-dried matter. Such as forage, crop straw, distiller's grains and so on. Coarse feed provides a large amount of nutrients for ruminants, and is an indispensable source of nutrients for the ruminant body. Corn stalks, straw and sweet potato vines are several common rough feeds currently used in ruminant breeding.
Chopping is the simplest and most important method of preparing straw. All straw and older hay should be chopped before feeding. After chopping, it can reduce the energy consumption when chewing the feed and reduce the waste of the feed. It can also be used in combination with other feeds to increase the feed intake. The degree of straw shredding should depend on the type and age of the livestock. The straw for feeding cows can be slightly longer, generally 3 to 4 cm, 2 to 3 cm for horses, mules, and donkeys, and 1.5 to 2.5 cm for sheep. Old, weak and young animals should be shorter.
The purpose of straw pulverization is to improve the digestibility. The fineness of crushing is generally 0.7 ~ 1.0 cm. But it should not be crushed too finely. If it is too thin, the animals cannot chew well, the saliva cannot be fully mixed, horses are prone to hernia, cattle and sheep are likely to cause stasis of rumination, and speed up the passage of feed through the rumen. Crude material stays in the rumen for a short time, and incomplete fermentation will reduce the digestion of straw rate.
The soaking method is to soak the chopped straw with water and mix it with concentrate before feeding. This method is a straw modulation method commonly used in rural China. The soaked straw softens, which improves palatability, and the concentrate is easy to stick in the straw, which can improve the utilization rate of the straw.
Spread the wheat straw on the threshing field with a thickness of 30-40 cm, and then spread a fresh green alfalfa of 30-40 cm on top. Cover the alfalfa with a layer of wheat straw of the same thickness, and then crush it with a stone. The alfalfa squash outflow juice is absorbed by wheat straw. The flattened alfalfa can dry out in 12 to 24 hours on hot days. Its advantages are that it can be made into hay relatively quickly, with uniform drying speed of stems and leaves, reducing the loss of leaf shedding, and improving the palatability and nutritional value of wheat straw.
Cooking can improve the palatability of straw and soften cellulose. It is often used to feed breeding pigs,
finishing cattle and low-yielding dairy cows. The cooking temperature is 90 ° C. After 1 hour, place in the box for 2 ~ 3 hours. In addition, straw can be used to feed mature cattle to mature grass. The method is to add a small amount of bean cake and salt to the chopped straw, cook in a large pot, and boil for 30 seconds to stop, then take it out and feed it to the cow. Or mix the chopped straw with carrots and put it into the iron pot (the lower layer of the pot has a vent pipe with holes in the trachea), cover it with sacks, and steam through the trachea for 20 to 30 seconds. Take out the cows and feed them 4 to 4.5 kg of dried straw. The feeding effect is good, which can increase lactation.
Six, modulation straw pulp
The straw pulp is used to prepare straw pulp, which can improve the palatability and easy digestion, and is suitable for feeding finishing pigs. For the preparation method, cut the straw into 2 to 3 cm length, add 5 kg of lime powder to each 100 kg of straw, add water and mix well, add 6 to 7 kg of water after boiling, cook for 1 hour, rinse with water after removing Put into the beater and beat at a speed of 220 revolutions per minute in 80 seconds.
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