No matter how high the price of feed materials, soybean is always one of the most economical protein sources in pig feed. Therefore, soybean is widely planted.
However, as with most other feed ingredients, soybean is also defective. The main problem is that it contains a large number of anti nutritional factors. This will reduce the digestibility and ultimately affect the growth and productivity of the animals as well as the benefits of the breeders. The use of soybean fed to adult pigs, and sometimes also affect the digestibility, unless the full heat treatment, otherwise, it is difficult to remove these anti nutritional factors in soybean. However, excessive cooking can lead to beneficial protein denaturation, which is contrary to the primary purpose of cooking. Therefore, we need to optimize the processing conditions, to establish a balanced relationship between the maintenance of protein quality and the reduction of anti nutritional factors.
These anti nutritional factors mainly affected piglets, especially in weanling piglets. The original beneficial soy protein can cause the piglet allergic reactions, activation of piglet intestinal immune system, resulting in organism by the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms of illusion, leading to the occurrence of the phenomenon of asit (allergen specific immunotherapy). The negative reaction can cause inflammation and diarrhea and inflammation is usually damage the lining of the intestines, pathogenic bacteria adhesion and exotoxin absorption provide convenience. Although the whole process will not exceed one week before the immune system stops responding, the damage is long and multifaceted. In general, there will be associated with infection of pathogenic bacteria.
In order to solve this problem, the industry put forward two views, one is to promote the introduction of soy protein immediately after weaning (assuming that the piglets have not or little contact with the teaching material before weaning). While people suggest that weaning should be gradual introducing soybean protein, but this view for soybean meal in weaning after the first dietary use of about 10%, in the second diet to quickly increased to 15%, the rest followed by analogy. This approach requires piglets with a higher level of feed intake to ensure that the impact is minimized. The negative effect of soy protein on the negative effects of soybean protein was increased when the feed intake was lower than the maintenance requirement.
The advantage of this method is that: 1) the formula cost is low; 2) piglets adapt to the soybean protein fast; 3) the number of food changes is small. In contrast, disadvantage is that the diarrhea rate is high, especially is not ideal in the health status of the farm.
To solve the same problem, another more moderate approach, is in after weaning the first diet does not use any soybean products, in the diet in the form of refined products using a small amount of soy protein (as in almost does not contain anti nutritional factors in soybean protein isolate). The key point of this method is similar to that of the first method. However, the main difference between the two is that the second methods of weaning stress and the problem of soy protein separate. Often, these two problems are considered as a whole; but no matter how close they are, they are obviously different. Second methods are suitable for those who have health problems, but the food price is expensive, it is difficult to bear. Therefore, from a market perspective, this approach is not ideal.
Of course, between these two kinds of more extreme methods, the industry has also tried to use a number of other methods, and in the application process has made a different degree of success. Two methods of compromise has many advantages, thus preparing the diets for those health status is unknown for swine. Generally speaking, in the author's personal experience, the following six kinds of soybean application method is the best:
1. In the first diet after weaning should use some form of soy protein (teach trough the use). Among them, the most ideal form of full fat extruded soybean. But it is not easy to get a good expanded soybean. Trypsin inhibitors are the best indicator of the quality of Soybean in the diets of piglets. If its content is less than 10mg/g, there is no problem with adding up to 10% of soybeans in the piglets diet. Under special circumstances, if the trypsin inhibitor content is less than 5mg/g (no decomposition of the protein), soybean protein in the diet of the use of the amount can be as high as 20%.
2. when there is no extruded soybeans or soybean trypsin inhibitor level is not low enough, another the most economical, the most appropriate soybean protein sources for soybean protein concentrate (or soy protein isolate, opsin unit price level). This raw material is usually very high purity, in most of the piglets diets to add 20%, in addition to the increase in costs, there is no problem.
3. the dietary crude protein levels provided by extruded soy or soy protein isolate should not be more than 10% in the first diet of weaned piglets. This will not only ensure that the immune system is fully activated, but also to avoid the immune system to carry too much soy protein antigen.
4. to minimize the allergic reaction, the diet should be easy to digest, and as far as possible. In this regard, the use of immune globulin (derived from plasma or yolk), fish meal and heating of grain helps to improve the early intake. In addition, the diet should contain appropriate antimicrobial agents.
5. soybean meal (48% protein content of soybean meal effect is best, because of the protein content of soybean meal compared with 44%, its fiber content is low). In general, diets containing 10% of soybean meal will be able to ensure the balance of soybean protein. In this case, with the maturity of the digestive system, content of anti nutritional factors in the diet gradually increased after weaning. At the same time, the immune system has enough time to respond to an allergic reaction.
6. Third soybean meal was used as the main protein source to reduce the cost of the 6 diets and all the subsequent diets. If the adoption of the above suggestions and piglet feed intake is high enough, allergic reaction is not obvious, piglets can peacefully through. The pigs in the most sensitive for any period not because of the presence of anti nutritional factors by torture.
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